COMPREHENSION SPEAKING BY LINGUISTIC


Kumpulan artikel bahasa inggris

Introduction
English is important in many fields, such as: to appreciate a literature, to do a comer/business, to improve our knowledge, science and technology because most of scientific books are written in English, even it can also be applied in carrying out the free-active foreign policy of our country, in this case to make the relationship among other countries in the world. English has four language skills. There are Speaking, Reading, Listening and Writing. In this writing, the writer tried to find out comprehension speaking by linguistic to make student’s language skill more fluent by pronunciation well. Speaking is a skill and as such needs to be develops and practiced independently of the grammar curriculum. You learn the grammar and you learn some vocabulary and you make sentences, which pronounce properly. Speaking is interactive and requires the ability to cooperate in the management of speaking turns. The nature of the speaking process means that the grammar of spoken language differs in a number of significant ways from the grammar of written language. When teacher teach student in English and teacher found many inhibition in English learning, such as students are not understand about English about vocabulary. As I find in a dictionary has many words, which are similar writing and pronoun similar among words and difference meaning. For example, word (1) “right” and (2) “right”. Both of them has similar pronoun but different meaning. The meaning of first word is “true or correct”, the second word is “direction”. Before teacher taught students how to speak English, so teacher taught the students about linguistic. Linguistic is study of language. So student must learn linguistic how to pronoun, how to understand vocabulary and meaning. The main problem is going to be investigated in this study is understood pronunciation in vocabulary and meanings. In linguistic learning student wants to know about parts of linguistic, there are phonetic, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic. In addition, teacher teaches student systematically until the student can understand about linguistic. Students’ mastery of English linguistic is dependent variable.

Theoretical
The word "linguistics" comes from the Latin word "Lingua" means language. Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss scholar, regarded as the pioneer of modern linguistics. His book "Cours de linguistique generale" (1916) is very well known and regarded as the basis of modern linguistics. Therefore, some Saussure used the term commonly accepted as the official term, for example langage, langue, and parole. langage means of language in general, as in saying "humans have language, animals have no language". Langue means certain language, e.g. French, Indonesian Language, Sunda and others. French word "parole" means the dialect, speech. Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language. Linguistic means "science of language". Linguistics is Study of the nature and structure of language. It traditionally encompasses semantics, syntax, and phonology. Synchronic linguistic studies aim to describe a language, as it exists at a given time; diachronic studies trace a language's historical development. Greek philosophers in the 5th century BC who debated the origins of human language were the first in the West to be concerned with linguistic theory. The first complete Greek grammar, written by Dionysus Thrax in the 1st century BC, was a model for Roman grammarians, whose work led to the medieval and Renaissance vernacular grammars. Linguistics is narrowly defined as the scientific approach to the study of language, but language can, of course, be approached from a variety of directions, and a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to it and influence its study. Linguistic structures are pairings of meaning and form; such pairings are known as Saussurean signs. In this sense, form may consist of sound patterns, movements of the hands, written symbols, and so on. There are many sub-fields concerned with particular aspects of linguistic structure, ranging from those focused primarily on form to those focused primarily on meaning: Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of speech (or signed) production and perception. Phonology, the study of sounds (or signs) as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguishes meaning. Morphology, the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified. Syntax is the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences. Pragmatics is the study of how utterances are used in communicative acts, and the role-played by context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning. Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed). Many linguists would agree that these divisions overlap considerably, and the independent significance of each of these areas is not universally acknowledged. Regardless of any particular linguist's position, each area has core concepts that foster significant scholarly inquiry and research. Alongside these structurally-motivated domains of study are other fields of linguistics, distinguished by the kinds of non-linguistic factors that they consider: Applied linguistics, the study of language-related issues applied in everyday life, notably language policies, planning, and education. (Constructed language fits under Applied linguistics.). Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals, compared to human language. Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology. Computational linguistics, the study of computational implementations of linguistic structures. Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in individuals, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood. Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language by the human species. Historical linguistics or diachronic linguistics, the study of language change over time. Language geography, the study of the geographical distribution of languages and linguistic features. Linguistic typology, the study of the common properties of diverse unrelated languages, properties that may, given sufficient attestation, be assumed to be innate to human language capacity. Neurolinguistics, the study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication. Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use. Sociolinguistics, the study of variation in language and its relationship with social factors. Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context. The related discipline of semiotics investigates the relationship between signs and what they signify. From the perspective of semiotics, language can be seen as a sign or symbol, with the world as its representation.
Linguistics may be defined as the scientific study of language. The linguist tries to verify the theory by making objective observations of actual language data and modifies the theory in the light of what he perceives to be the patterns or regularities underlying the data. Linguistics is mentioned in the context of language teaching, it represented as a development of our own time. The word “linguistics” was first used in England in 1837, and the study of language has a very long history. When structural linguistic analysis came on the scene of language teaching, traditional grammar was condemned, although it still lingers on in some of our schools. If we look for direct applications of linguistics to language teaching, we will be disappointed. We should not bring abstract linguistic descriptions into the classroom. The linguists could continue this process of finding minimal pairs by adding to pin, bin, sin words like chin, din, fin, gin, kin, shin, tin, thin, win. The kind of grammar commonly taught in school before the coming of modern linguistics is called traditional grammar. A major weakness of this grammar is that it is inconsistent in the criteria used for defining the parts of speech. When structural linguistics analysis came on the scene of language teaching, traditional grammar was condemned, although it still lingers on in some of our schools.

FINDING DATA
Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning 'sound, voice') is the study of the sounds of human speech. Phonetics is the science, which analyses and records sounds and the elements of speech, and their use and distribution in connected sentences. When we speak we produce a stream of sound, which is extremely difficult to examine because it is continuous. The linguist has therefore to find a way to break down the stream of speech so that the units may be studied and described accurately. Linguists use a phonetic alphabet for the purpose of recording speech sounds in written or printed form. A phonetic alphabet is based on the principle of one letter per sound. Phonetic alphabet does not teach sounds. It is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), and their production, audition and perception, as opposed to phonology, which is the study of sound systems and abstract sound units (such as phonemes and distinctive features). Phonetics deals with the sounds themselves rather than the contexts in which they are used in languages. Discussions of meaning (semantics) do not enter at this level of linguistic analysis. Phonetics has three main branches: articulatory phonetics, concerned with the positions and movements of the lips, tongue, vocal tract and folds and other speech organs in producing speech; acoustic phonetics, concerned with the properties of the sound waves and how they are received by the inner ear; and auditory phonetics, concerned with speech perception, principally how the brain forms perceptual representations of the input it receives. There are over a hundred different phones recognized as distinctive by the International Phonetic Association (IPA) and transcribed in their International Phonetic Alphabet. For students who have mastered the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) phonetic transcriptions can help improve their understanding of the importance of connected speech when speaking English. Dictionaries give single word phonetic transcriptions, which can greatly improve student’s pronunciation skills. However, when speaking to native speakers, students are often surprised at how the phonetic transcriptions seem to not always match pronunciation used in connected speech. This is in great part due to the fact that English is a time stressed language, as opposed to a syllabic language. This manner of speaking greatly influences, and sometimes even changes, the pronunciation of single words. The following lesson provides students with an opportunity to examine how connected speech can change pronunciation. The sounds of speech can be studied in three different ways. Acoustic phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are transmitted. Auditory phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are heard. Articulatory phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are produced by the human speech apparatus. There are three types of phonetics: acoustic phonetics, the sounds of language by investigating aspects of the vibration of air. For example when we play guitar then the string guitar (strings) to vibrate, causing the air vibrate. Similarly with the sounds of language are produced by means of talk. Phonetic auditory is receiving inquiries about how the language sounds by ear. Phonetic auditory not much done in relation to linguistic, standard books on phonetics auditory and expertise required is expertise in medical science. Phonetic organic, investigate how the language sounds produced with the tools to talk. How to work the tools to speak: the air in the pump from the lungs through the windpipe to the larynx that contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords should open to allow airflow out through the oral cavity, nasal cavity or through both. Because in the windpipe for air flow there is no other way. if the air out without resistance, then we will not hear the sound. Language sound produced when airflow was blocked by speech synthesizers. For example: between the vocal cords is the sound produced sounds (voiced sounds).
The organs we use in speaking are primarily used in breathing and eating. They are contained in three areas of the body-the chest, the throat and the head. In the chest are the lungs. Which are very important in speaking, because all the sound of English is produced with air flowing from the lungs. When we breathe, air passed smoothly through the vocal tract (the throat and mouth). Without making a noise. When we speak various things can happen to this flow of air and these interferences produce the sounds of speech. In the throat is the larynx or voice box. Which is located just inside the Adam’s apple in a man and in the corresponding area in a woman. It has an opening called the glottis. Which may be modified by the two bits of elastic tissues called vocal cords or bands that stretch across it. These vocal cords can interfere with the flow of air in various ways. The airflow can be completely stopped by the vocal cords when they are drawn firmly together to close the glottis as in the production of a glottis stop. You can produce a glottal stop in pronouncing the beginning vowel in words like orange, always, enter. When the vocal cords are drawn lightly together, the air passing through between them causes them to vibrate. This happens when we make a buzzing sound like zzz. If the vocal cords are relaxed and apart, the air passes between them without causing vibration. As when we make a hissing sound like sss. When the vocal cords vibrate, the sound produced is a voiced sound. When the vocal cords do not vibrate, the sound produced is a voiceless sound. You can feel the vibration of a voiced sound by placing your hand over the voice box or hear it by covering your ears. In the head are the organs of articulation and two cavities, the oral cavity (or mouth) and the nasal cavity (or nose). The organs of articulation in the upper part of the mouth are the uvula, the soft palate, the hard palate, the alveolar ridge (the gums behind the upper front teeth), the upper teeth and the upper lip. The organs of articulation in the lower part of the mouth are the tongue, the lower teeth and the lower lip. The tongue has been divided into three parts: the back, the front and the apex (or tip). The tongue is the most flexible organ of speech because every part of it can be moved. In the production of speech sounds, the organs in the upper part of the mouth may be described as places or points of articulation and those in the lower part of the mouth as articulators. When we produce speech sounds, the airflow is interfered with by the articulators in the lower part of the mouth moving towards the points of articulation in the upper part of the mouth. The resulting opening is called the manner of articulation of the speech sound. If the articulator touches the point of articulation firmly, the airflow is stopped and the sound produced is called a stop. If it comes close and leaves a narrow opening, the air flows through with friction and the sound is called a fricative. If it touches the point of articulation as in a stop, and then comes away slowly and air passes through with friction, the sound is an affricative (a combination of stop and fricative). If it touches the point of articulation but allows air to flow along the side of the tongue, the sound is a lateral. The International Phonetic Association recommends that a phonetic transcription should be enclosed in square brackets "[ ]". A transcription that specifically denotes only phonological contrasts may be enclosed in slashes "/ /" instead. If one is in doubt, it is best to use brackets, for by setting off a transcription with slashes one makes a theoretical claim that every symbol within is phonemically contrastive for the language being transcribed.
Phonetic transcriptions try to objectively capture the actual pronunciation of a word, whereas phonemic transcriptions are model-dependent. For example, in The Sound Pattern of English, Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle transcribed the English word night phonemically as /nixt/. In this model, the phoneme /x/ is never realized as [x], but shows its presence by "lengthening" the preceding vowel. The preceding vowel in this case is the phoneme /i/, which is pronounced [aɪ] when "long". So phonemic /nixt/ is equivalent to phonetic [naɪt], but underlying this analysis is the belief that historical sounds such as the gh in night may remain in a word long after they have ceased to be pronounced, or that a phoneme may exist in a language without ever being directly expressed. (This was later rejected by both Chomsky and Halle.) For phonetic transcriptions, there is flexibility in how closely sounds may be transcribed. A transcription that gives only a basic idea of the sounds of a language in the broadest terms is called a broad transcription; in some cases this may be equivalent to a phonemic transcription (only without any theoretical claims). A close transcription, indicating precise details of the sounds, is called a narrow transcription. These are not binary choices, but the ends of a continuum, with many possibilities in between. All are enclosed in brackets. For example, in some dialects the English word pretzel in a narrow transcription would be [ˈpʰɹ̥ʷɛʔt.sɫ̩], which notes several phonetic features that may not be evident even to a native speaker. An example of a broad transcription is [ˈpʰɹɛt.sɫ̩], which only indicates some of the easier to hear features. A yet broader transcription would be [ˈpɹɛt.sl]. Here every symbol represents an unambiguous speech sound, but without going into any unnecessary detail. None of these transcriptions make any claims about the phonemic status of the sounds. Instead, they represent certain ways in which it is possible to produce the sounds that make up the word. There are also several possibilities in how to transcribe this word phonemically, but here the differences are generally not of precision, but of analysis. For example, pretzel could be /prɛt.sl/ or /pret.səl/. The special symbol for English r is not used, for it is not meaningful to distinguish it from a rolled r. The differences in the letter e reflect claims as to what the essential difference is between the vowels of pretzel and pray; there are half a dozen ideas in the literature as to what this may be. The second transcription claims that there are two vowels in the word, even if they can't both be heard, while the first claims there is only one.
Linguists make use of the speech apparatus just explained to classify and describe the sounds of speech. One basic classification is the distinction between vowels and consonants. Vowels are those segments of speech produced without any interruption or stoppage of the air stream, e.g. [I], [u]. Passage of air is continuous and frictionless. Consonants, on the other hand are segments marked by interruption of the air stream. When the interruption is complete a stop is produced as in [t], [d]. When it is incomplete and accompanied by friction a fricative is produced as in [s], [v]. The interruption may be in the form of various kinds of trills as in Scottish [r]. All vowels are produced with vibration of the vocal cords, but consonants may be produced with or without such vibration. Stop {p, b, t, d, k, g}. Stops are produced by stopping the passage of the breath stream with a build-up of pressure behind the closure and then releasing the breath. If the breath is stopped by the lips coming together, either a [p] or a [b] is produced when the breath is released. These are bilabial stops, [p] is voiceless and [b] is voiced. The air may be stopped at the alveolar ridge by raising the tip of the tongue to produce the alveolar stops. Voiceless [t] and voiced [d]. Farther back in the mouth the air may be stopped at the velum (soft palate) by raising the front of the tongue, thereby producing the velar stops, voiceless [k] and voiced [g]. Fricatives, there are ten fricatives in English, [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, з, r h]. Fricatives are produced when the air stream is not completely stopped but passes through with friction or a hissing sound. If the upper teeth (as the point of articulation) and the lower lip make the opening through which air passes with friction, the labiodentals fricatives are produced, voiceless [f] and voiced [v]. If the tip of the tongue shapes an opening with the upper teeth, then the dental fricatives [θ] and [ð] result. [θ] is voiceless as in the beginning of thin and through. [ð] is voiced as in the beginning of then and though. In the first pair the tip of the tongue is raised close to the alveolar ridge to form an opening that produces the alveolar fricatives, voiceless [s] and voiced [z], as in sip and zip.
Analyzing
Phonetics “the science which analysis and records sounds and the elements of speech and their use and distribution in connected sentences. Many systems of phonetic transcription have been invented. The one is British English is that of the International Phonetic Association (IPA) in its “broad” form, which was used by D. Jones in his Outline of English Phonetic. We will follow the flow of air outwards in this description. In the chest are the lungs. When we breathe, air passed smoothly through the vocal tract (the throat and mouth). Without making a noise when we speak various things can happen to this flow of air and these interferences produce the sounds of speech. In the throat is the larynx or voice box. It has an opening called the glottis. Which may be modified by the two bits of elastic tissues called vocal cords or bands that stretch across it. These vocal cords can interfere with the flow of air in various ways. The airflow can be completely stopped by the vocal cords when they are drawn firmly together to close the glottis as in the production of a glottis stop. You can produce a glottal stop in pronouncing the beginning vowel in words like orange, always, enter. When the vocal cords are drawn lightly together, the air passing through between them causes them to vibrate. This happens when we make a buzzing sound like zzz. If the vocal cords are relaxed and apart, the air passes between them without causing vibration. As when we make a hissing sound like sss. When the vocal cords vibrate, the sound produced is a voiced sound. When the vocal cords do not vibrate, the sound produced is a voiceless sound. You can feel the vibration of a voiced sound by placing your hand over the voice box or hear it by covering your ears. In the head are the organs of articulation and two cavities, the oral cavity (or mouth) and the nasal cavity (or nose). The organs of articulation in the upper part of the mouth are the uvula, the soft palate, the hard palate, the alveolar ridge (the gums behind the upper front teeth), the upper teeth and the upper lip. The organs of articulation in the lower part of the mouth are the tongue, the lower teeth and the lower lip. The tongue has been divided into three parts: the back, the front and the apex (or tip). The tongue is the most flexible organ of speech because every part of it can be moved. In the production of speech sounds, the organs in the upper part of the mouth may be described as places or points of articulation and those in the lower part of the mouth as articulators. When we produce speech sounds, the airflow is interfered with by the articulators in the lower part of the mouth moving towards the points of articulation in the upper part of the mouth. The resulting opening is called the manner of articulation of the speech sound.
The International Phonetic Alphabet has deliberately been based on the letter forms of the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible. The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonants taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to “international usage”. Hence, the letters [b], [d], [f], (hard) [ɡ], [k], [l], [m], [n], [p], (voiceless) [s], [t], [v], and [z] have the values used in English and most other European languages , and the vowels from the Latin alphabet ([a], [e], [i], [o], [u]) correspond to the vowels of spanish. [i] is like the vowel in machine, [u] is as in rule, etc. Symbols derived from the Greek alphabet include [β], [ɣ], [ɛ], [θ], [ɸ], and [χ]. Of these, the only ones that closely correspond to the Greek letters they are derived from are [ɣ] and [θ]. Although [β], [ɛ], [ɸ], and [χ] denote beta-like, epsilon-like, phi-like, and chi-like sounds, they do not correspond to them exactly. The letter [ʋ], though visually similar to the Greek vowel letter <υ>, upsilon, is actually a consonant.
A place of articulation is defined as both the active and passive articulators. For instance, the active lower lip may contact either a passive upper lip (bilabial, like [m]) or the upper teeth (labiodental, like [f]). The hard palate may be contacted by either the front or the back of the tongue. If the front of the tongue is used, the place is called retroflex if back of the tongue ("dorsum") is used; the place is called "dorsal-palatal", or more commonly, just palatal. The Place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonant occurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips), alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). Additionally, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such as patalisation or pharyngealisation. The manner of articulation is the method that the consonant is articulated, such as nasal (through the nose), stop (complete obstruction of air), or approximant (vowel like). First learn the words you will need in order to study how to make the sounds. Like, open your mouth, close your mouth, open your mouth a little, and open your mouth a little more. /iy/ sheep, tea, three, cheese, peas, bean, heel, cheeks. Put your tongue forward and up. /i/ ship, hill, sit, chicks, fill. /i/ is a shorter and more relaxed sound. // yes, bell, pen, checks, rest, fell. First practice the sound //. /ey/ train, pain, wait, tail, taste, paper. For consonants close your lips tight. Push air forward in your mouth. Then open your lips quickly. Do not use your voice. /p/ pen, pin, pear, pocket, apple, stupid. /b/ baby, buy, bath, cab, robe, blue, somebody. /t/ tie, top, thirteen, toy, teenager, towel, twin, twelve. /d/ door, ride, card, date, today, yesterday. /k/ touch the back of the roof of your mouth with the back of your tongue. Push air forward in your mouth. Then move your tongue away. /k/ key, car, ski, sky, six, look, next, thanks. /g/ first practice /g/, use your voice to make /g/. /g/ girl, goat, glass, bag, glad, good, golf, dog.

Conclusion
The nature of the speaking process means that the grammar of spoken language differs in a number of significant ways from the grammar of written language. When teacher teach student in English and teacher found many inhibition in English learning, such as students are not understand about English about vocabulary. Before the students learn English seriously so the students must learn about how to pronoun “word” and also how to pronoun “spell”. It is sometimes difficult to find a word if you do not know how the first sound is written. Instance, Wh- is sometimes pronounced /h-/ as in who, whole. Ps- is pronounced /s-/ as in psychology. Ch- is sometimes pronounced /k-/ as in chaos, chorus. Stop {p, b, t, d, k, g}, “pen” [p] is voiceless and “bad” [b] is voiced. “Tea” Voiceless [t] and “do” voiced [d]. “Cat” voiceless [k] and “got” voiced [g]. Like that. For instance else, voiceless [s] and voiced [z], as in sip and zip. Both of instances have almost resemblance sound that has different meaning. “Sheep” /i:p/ and “ship” /ip/ have similar sound and have different meaning. If the English teacher gives phonetics learning, the students would have improved their speaking to be better. The operational definition of “students’ mastery of English linguistic” is the capability of the students in learning English pronunciation and practicing them in their daily conversation in the class. The students attain that as the result of the learning process at school in studying English linguistic, especially pronunciation.

Subscribe to receive free email updates: